Reflections, Insights, and Realizations


Is intrinsic motivation primarily cognitive or affective? Is motivation to learn primarily cognitive or affective? Explain.


Intrinsic Motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards that includes money or grades. The motivation comes from pleasure one gets when the task or activity or from the sense of satisfaction in completing a task.

Most of the intrinsically motivated person will work on a math equation, because it is enjoyable. The enjoyment they get to solve a problem provides them a sense of pleasure. They do not work on the problems because of rewards or money. They have the urge to enjoy solving problems without the aid of rewards.

Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not see rewards. It is just that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated. Intrinsically driven students will still want a good grade on a task, activity or assignment, but if the assignment does not interest that student, the possibility of good grade is not enough to maintain that student’s motivation to put any effort into the project.

Intrinsic motivation is primarily cognitive since the student’s is driven to solve a problem and accept the challenges without the aid of a reward in terms on money or grades. They find a sense of pleasure that drives them to complete a task or an assignment.

Motivation to learn can be considered cognitive since it is reflected in personal investment in school activities (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004; Maehr & Meyer, 2004; Reeve, 2006). One student may be interested in classroom subject matter and seek out challenging course work, participate in class discussions and earn high marks on assignment projects. Other would probably consider their social side of their studies and attending extracurricular activities.

Motivation has several effects on students’ learning and behavior.

  • Motivation directs behavior toward particular goals. As we discovered in Chapter 10, social cognitive theorists propose that individuals set goals for themselves and direct their behavior accordingly. Motivation determines the specific goals toward which learners strive (Maehr & Meyer, 1997; Pintrich et al., 1993). Thus, it affects the choices students make—for instance, whether to enroll in physics or studio art, whether to spend an evening completing a challenging homework assignment or playing videogames with friends.
  • Motivation leads to increased effort and energy. Motivation increases the amount of effort and energy that learners expend in activities directly related to their needs and goals (Csikszentmihalyi & Nakamura, 1989; Maehr, 1984; Pintrich et al., 1993). It determines whether they pursue a task enthusiastically and wholeheartedly or apathetically and lackadaisically.
  • Motivation increases initiation of and persistence in activities.Learners are more likely to begin a task they actually want to do. They are also more likely to continue working at it until they’ve completed it, even if they are occasionally interrupted or frustrated in the process (Larson, 2000; Maehr, 1984; Wigfield, 1994). In general, then, motivation increases students’ time on task, an important factor affecting their learning and achievement (Brophy, 1988; Larson, 2000; Wigfield, 1994).
  • Motivation affects cognitive processes. Motivation affects what learners pay attention to and how effectively they process it (Eccles & Wigfield, 1985; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002; Pugh & Bergin, 2006). For instance, motivated learners often make a concerted effort to truly understand classroom material—to learn it meaningfully—and consider how they might use it in their own lives.
  • Motivation determines which consequences are reinforcing and punishing. The more learners are motivated to achieve academic success, the more they will be proud of an A and upset by a low grade. The more learners want to be accepted and respected by peers, the more they will value membership in the “in” group and be distressed by the ridicule of classmates. To a teenage boy uninterested in athletics, making or not making the school football team is no big deal, but to a teen whose life revolves around football, making or not making the team may be a consequence of monumental importance.
  • Motivation often enhances performance. Because of the other effects just identified—goal-directed behavior, effort and energy, initiation and persistence, cognitive processing, and the impact of consequences—motivation often leads to improved performance. As you might guess, then, students who are most motivated to learn and excel in classroom activities tend to be our highest achievers (A. E. Gottfried, 1990; Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992; Walberg & Uguroglu, 1980). Conversely, students who have little interest in academic achievement are at high risk for dropping out before they graduate from high school (Hardré & Reeve, 2003; Hymel et al., 1996; Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997).

“When understanding increases, poor performance decreases. In time, fear of failure and the anxiety it produces will also decrease.” Using motivational theories as a basis, explain how the anxiety will be decreased.


When your understanding to a certain subject or matter increases, it is natural that poor performance decreases since your understanding will make you a good performer. A simple example would be, when you understand how a math problem is being solve using equations and formulas, it is natural that your performance will be high since you are aware of what to do and you understand it. Poor performance will diminish once you are able to understand the subject matter or something that is being discussed or taught.

Examine and provide an explanation for the figure shown in the section on FLOW).  

Flow and Optimal Arousal Theories

These two theories are combined because of their close connection. Neither are supported by much empirical evidence, but they are often seen in a practical way throughout many of our adventure pursuits.

Flow is a state of mind that unifies ones actions and focus. When in a state of flow, a person is purely focused on the task at hand, and is performing at the peak of their ability, where the challenge is high enough to be stimulating, but low enough to prevent over-stimulation or fear. The feeling is often described by athletes as being “in the zone.”

Optimal Arousal Theory (OAT) describes the connection between performance and arousal. As arousal increases, performance of an activity also increases, but only to a point. As arousal gets too high, performance decreases. The perfect (or optimal) level of arousal is different for different tasks. For example, difficult rock climbing might benefit from a high level of arousal, but long distance running might benefit from a lower level.

Part of the connection between OAT and flow is that flow is easier to reach when at an optimal level of arousal.



Learning Styles (January 18-25)

I am not aware of what learning styles I was using or still using until I came up to the reading materials provided in this module. Knowing your learning style will make you focus on what you are lacking and what to improve in a way that you would want to try other learning styles and discover if it works for you or not. Having concrete idea is such learning styles suits you, will make it easier for your learning.

Active learning instructional strategies can be incorporated to improve learning in a classroom. It includes a wide range of activities that share the common element of “involving students in doing things and thinking about things they are doing” (Bonwell and Eison 1991).

It should also be noted that active learning instructional strategies can be completed by students either in-class or out-of-class, be done by students working either as individual or in group, and done either with or without the use of technology tools.

You would have to modify teaching in a way that it will bring improvement to the learning process of the students. You have to have several approaches in teaching in order to cater with students that have different learning styles. Considering the number of learning styles, and the number of students you have, it would be necessary to at least know your students and what their learning styles are for you to effectively administer an effecting teaching.


Introduction (January 4-17)

Learning. What events constitute learning and what events do not? As a learner yourself, what are your ideas about learning?

There are many events that constitute learning. Your everyday life can be considered learning in a way that you experience so many things like going to work and performing your everyday task. You learn from people you meet and people you deal with. As a person, you are continuously learning by means of interacting to people around you. It is up to you whether you take the ideas or reject it.


What is the difference between maturation and learning; what is its role in learning?

Learning was defined by Huitt as the relatively permanent change in individual’s behavior or behavioral potential as a result of experience or practice. Taking from that line means that as you learn, you constantly change within yourself taking things into consideration and understanding things in a different perspective. Maturation on the other hand is the alteration of your biological growth and development as described by Huitt. Since maturation and learning goes together in a sense that relative permanent change in others or us was either cause by learning or maturation, or more often by both.


Theory and practice. How can understanding learning theories refine (help improve) educational practice?

Theory is said to be an acceptable set of principles offered to explain a phenomenon. (Dewey, 2011). In that sense, theory serves a guide for a teacher and a tool whether their teaching process is effective or following a correct process to facilitate learning. I agree with Huitt that “teaching is not giving knowledge or skills to students”. A teacher serves as a guide in attaining knowledge or skills for a student by means of teaching. Teaching is the act of guiding the students to acquire knowledge based on the materials being used or being studied.


Schunk, D.H. (2012). Chapter 1. Introduction to the Study of Learning. In Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective, (6th Ed.). MA: Pearson.

Metacognition and Self-Regulation

I have heard the word before but I never dig into it deeply therefore, to me it was just a word only until today. Metacognitive learning is important in learning since you will know what are the the topic that is important and worth reading. Metacognition has been described as a conscious awareness of one’s knowledge and the conscious ability to understand, control, and manipulate one’s own cognitive process. It would be more accurate to say that metacognitive strategies are almost always potentially conscious andpotentially controllable (Pressley, Borkowski, & Schneider, 1987).

The concept of self-regulation overlaps heavily with the preceding two terms; its focus is on the ability of the learners themselves to monitor their own learning (without external stimuli or persuasion) and to maintain the attitudes necessary to invoke and employ these strategies on their own. To learn most effectively, students should not only understand what strategies are available and the purposes these strategies will serve, but also become capable of adequately selecting, employing, monitoring, and evaluating their use of these strategies. (See Hallahan et al., 1979; Graham & Harris, 1992; Reid & Harris, 1989, 1993.)

Self-regulation is important in distance education because the student monitors his own learning without the pursuation from the teachers and to maintain the attitudes nescessary to invoke and employ these strategies on their own. Specially since distance education is conducted online, the teacher will not be able to monitor what the student is doing at a certain time of the day wherein he or she is supposed to be studying, hence self-regulation is essensial.